In December 2016, while run by G4S, the category B prison was rocked by the worst outbreak of rioting at an English jail in more than two decades.
Inmates caused widespread damage after seizing control of four wings and releasing 500 prisoners from their cells during the disturbance – which lasted for more than 12 hours.
Riot squads had to be deployed to the prison after reports of prisoners setting fire to stairwells and destroying paper records.
One man, believed to be in his 20s, was taken to hospital with a facial injury as well as cuts and bruises, but no prison staff were injured.
Some 240 prisoners were moved out of the prison as a result.
Seven men were later convicted of prison mutiny for their role in the rioting.
The city centre jail, formerly known as Winson Green, can hold up to 1,450 inmates and was taken over by G4S in 2011.
A June 2017 inspection found it had been gripped by drug-fuelled violence, with many inmates feeling “unsafe” behind bars.
The first official report since the riot concluded there was too much fighting on wings, often triggered by easy access to “problematic” new psychoactive substances.
Half of the prisoners surveyed also told inspectors it was “easy to get drugs”, with one in seven reporting they were getting hooked on drugs while in the jail.
The inspection also found the use of mobile phones and drones to arrange and deliver contraband, such as the highly addictive Spice, over the Victorian jail’s high walls was also “a significant threat”.
Three months later staff were involved in another stand-off with inmates following a disturbance.
A number of prisoners refused to return to their cells at the end of an evening.
Specially trained prison staff resolved the incident, which lasted almost seven hours, with no injuries to staff or prisoners.
The prison made headlines again earlier this month after nine cars were torched during an arson attack on the staff car park.
Two masked men used an angle grinder to cut their way into the parking compound before dousing vehicles in flammable liquid.
Further damage was prevented after the men, one of whom was armed with a handgun, were confronted by two prison staff.
The incident came as an unannounced inspection of the prison was carried out.
The Chief Inspector of Prisons later wrote to the Justice Secretary to raise the “significant concerns” about the state of HMP Birmingham.
Peter Clarke took the step of issuing an urgent notification to David Gauke about the jail, warning it had “slipped into crisis” following a “dramatic deterioration” in the last 18 months.
On Monday it was announced HMP Birmingham was being taken back under Government control.