HMP Kirkham – an impressive resettlement prison


HMP Kirkham was a very effective prison which successfully addressed the complex needs of some prisoners, said Nick Hardwick, Chief Inspector of Prisons. Today he published the report of an unannounced inspection of the Lancashire open prison.

HMP Kirkham holds up to 630 men, nearly a quarter of whom are either life sentence prisoners or subject to indeterminate sentences for public protection. Previous inspections have found Kirkham to be an impressive institution with a balanced approach to risk management and an appropriate focus on resettlement. This inspection found that progress had been sustained.

Inspectors were pleased to find that:

  • Kirkham was a safe prison with a mature population profile, with about 70% of prisoners over the age of 30;
  • risk was managed with proportionality and confidence;
  • there were few incidents of violence or self-harm;
  • the prison delivered some good drug intervention work;
  • the general environment was well maintained;
  • there was some good support for older prisoners and those with disabilities and care needs;
  • prisoners had excellent access to facilities and services, with purposeful activity available to all;
  • provision in work, vocational training and education was well planned and had a focus on employability; and
  • resettlement outcomes in the prison were reasonably good although there remained some gaps in fully addressing offending behaviour.

However, inspectors were concerned to find that:

  • use of illicit drugs was higher than usually seen in open prisons;
  • the number of prisoners subject to segregation had increased significantly and the facility was bleak; and
  • although relationships between prisoners and staff were respectful, over a quarter of prisoners said they felt victimised by staff, which needed more investigation by managers.

Nick Hardwick said:

“Kirkham is a very effective and impressive prison. Across the range of our healthy prison tests we found outcomes to be reasonably good or better, and the prison was successfully addressing some complex needs. Although some structures required attention, staff and managers exhibited a confidence, competence and sense of purpose that was equipping prisoners well through their transition from imprisonment to resettlement.”


Michael Spurr, Chief Executive Officer of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), said:

“I am pleased the Chief Inspector has recognised HMP Kirkham as a very effective prison addressing the needs of complex prisoners and maintaining its focus on providing resettlement opportunities – this is a credit to the hard work of the Governor and his staff.

“The prison will continue to build on the progress they have made and look to address any areas of concern raised in the report.”

A copy of the report can be found on the HM Inspectorate of Prisons website at

HM Prison Liverpool – Slow but steady progress


HMP Liverpool was well led and was making steady but slow progress, said Nick Hardwick, Chief Inspector of Prisons as he published the report of an unannounced inspection of the local jail.

HMP Liverpool has had a difficult history with some seemingly intractable problems. However, inspectors were encouraged to find the prison retained a clear leadership focus on providing more decent and progressive treatment for those held. The progress, albeit slow, identified at the inspection in 2011 had continued. Many men arrived at the prison with substance misuse issues, mental health-related problems and disability. The mainly 19th century infrastructure presented real impediments to providing a decent living environment and recent staffing changes had presented risks in maintaining stability. Nevertheless, the prison had done a reasonable job of addressing those challenges although gaps remained.

Inspectors were pleased to find that:

  • security was well managed and there was some excellent work to develop violence reduction processes;
  • support for prisoners with substance misuse had improved significantly;
  • prisoners at risk of self-harm were receiving some reasonable support;
  • relationships between staff and prisoners were generally good;
  • time out of cell was reasonable for most prisoners and the range of vocational training opportunities had improved;
  • the provision of activity places was broadly sufficient for the population held and most prisoners were involved in something purposeful; and
  • management of resettlement was good and public protection arrangements were satisfactory.

However, inspectors were concerned to find that:

  • although first night and induction procedures had improved, many prisoners still felt unsafe on their first night;
  • more generally, too many prisoners felt unsafe;
  • too many prisoners at risk of self-harm were being held in segregation;
  • there were real challenges with the diversion and trading of prescribed medications;
  • the segregation unit and regime were particularly poor;
  • prisoners with disabilities suffered from poor access to some areas of the prison; and
  • too much teaching and learning was inadequate and the achievement of qualifications on some courses had fallen.

Nick Hardwick said:

“Liverpool appears to be coping well following some recent restructuring and the realignment of its resources. The prison is well led. There is a competence and realism on the part of the governor and his senior team about the risks they manage and what can be done to affect improvement. The environment is a concern and in need of meaningful investment. There remain gaps and weaknesses in some provision and the often negative perceptions of prisoners should be addressed seriously and not rationalised away. The prison needs to improve the way it deals with vulnerable prisoners. Despite this, outcomes in many areas are better than we have seen in the past, and there is a sense of continuing steady, if slow, progress.”

Michael Spurr, Chief Executive Officer of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), said:

“I am pleased that the Chief Inspector has confirmed that Liverpool continues to improve despite a more complex and challenging prisoner population and a 19th century infrastructure.
“The Governor and his staff deserve real credit for implementing ‘new ways of working’ and achieving improvements whilst also reducing cost.
“We will use the recommendations in this report to support further improvement – I want to commend the leadership provided by the Governor and his senior team and the commitment demonstrated by Liverpool staff.”

A copy of the report can be found on the HM Inspectorate of Prisons website at

Jail Riot Squad Call Out On The Increase


Prison riot squads were called out to calm tensions in prisons almost four times every week on average last year prompting warnings that jails have become “dens of violence”.

The National Tactical Response Group (NTRG) was called out to deal with 203 separate prisoner disturbances in 2013, a 57% rise on the previous year (129), Justice Minister Jeremy Wright has revealed.

The number of callouts of the NTRG, the specialist response group for serious incidents in prisons, has increased by 72% from 118 incidents in 2010 when the coalition was elected to last year’s figure.

Shadow justice secretary Sadiq Khan blamed the Government for cutting prison workers while jails become more overcrowded, creating rising fears of attacks on staff.

At the start of the month the prison population stood at 85,469, with just 441 spaces left in the whole system.

This means prisons are now running at 99.5% of capacity, beyond the 99% level when the Government is meant to implement the “emergency footing” for prisons known as Operation Safeguard, according to the Labour frontbencher.

Mr Khan, who uncovered the figures using a parliamentary question, said: “In the space of a year, our jails have become much more dangerous places for staff and prisoners. These figures are a further sign of the Government’s failure and lay bare the mess in our prisons on (Justice Secretary)Chris Grayling’s watch.

“This Government promised us a rehabilitation revolution. Instead, violence has risen by nearly three quarters since 2010. Prisoners are going up and prison staff down.

“Jails are more overcrowded than ever, and instead of prisoners putting their time to good use working, undertaking training and education they’re idling away in their cells or on prison landings.

“Prisons are about reforming criminals as well as punishing them. If our jails are dens of violence there is no chance of any rehabilitation.”

Young offenders institute Hindley prison had the most callouts with ten, closely followed by HMP Lindholme and HMP Woodhill, which houses some of Britain’s most dangerous criminals.

Mr Wright said the riot squad was only called out to half of Britain’s prisons (51%) in the last year and were mainly dealing with “minor incidents” such as prisoner protests.

He said there was no rise in the number of serious incidents attended.

In his response to Mr Khan, the minister wrote: “NTRG staff have been called to attend incidents at only 51% of establishments in the past year.

“There has been a rise in the number of callouts during 2013. This is mainly due to minor incidents such as prisoners protesting by climbing on to the netting between landings.

“NTRG staff have the specialist skills required to deal with such incidents which accounted for 67% of all the callouts during 2013, and they are frequently called to attend as a precautionary measure.

“Not all callouts result in engagement by NTRG staff, with a number of situations being resolved locally.

“Of all the incidents attended during 2013, 74% were resolved by surrender.

“There has been no rise in the number of serious incidents being attended.”

The Howard League for Penal Reform said the rise in riot squad callouts was a direct consequence of Government budget cuts.

Andrew Neilson, its director of campaigns said serious unrest could be on the horizon.

He said: “These worrying figures are a direct consequence of the dangerous way the Ministry of Justice has cut prison budgets in response to the austerity drive within government.

“Rather than looking at the fact the prison population has doubled over the past 20 years and finding community sentences for the large number of people imprisoned needlessly, ministers took the gamble of slashing prison budgets by cutting back on staff, safety, security and useful things for prisoners to do.

“This policy has made our prisons increasingly dangerous places to live and work, with the potential for serious unrest on the horizon. If things go wrong, it will only lead to more crime, an increased risk to the public and a vast amount of taxpayers’ money wasted.”

Prisons Minister Mr Wright said: “We are reforming and modernising the prison estate to ensure best value for the taxpayer but are committed to maintaining safe prisons with appropriate staffing levels in order to deliver effective rehabilitation.

“Specialist trained staff have been called to an increase in minor incidents, but there is no rise in serious incidents. These staff are not riot squads.”

Here is a full list in alphabetical order of the prisons the National Tactical Response Group was called out to in 2013, followed by the number of callouts for each jail, as provided by Justice Minister Jeremy Wright in response to a parliamentary question from shadow justice secretary Sadiq Khan:

Altcourse 3

Aylesbury 5

Camp Hill 1

Cardiff 1

Channings Wood 1

Coldingley 2

Cookham Wood 2

Deerbolt 1

Doncaster 3

Dorchester 1

Dovegate 2

Dover 1

Elmley 1

Erlestoke 1

Everthorpe 3

Featherstone 5

Feltham 3

Full Sutton 1

Garth 1

Gartree 1

Glen Parva 3

Guys Marsh 3

Haverigg 3

Hewell 3

Highdown 4

Highpoint 2

Hindley 10

Holme House 1

Hull 4

Isis 2

Lancaster Farms 1

Leeds 2

Leicester 2

Lewes 2

Lincoln 4

Lindholme 9

Littlehey 1

Liverpool 2

Long Lartin 7

Lowdham Grange 6

Maidstone 1

Moorland 5

Morton Hall 1

Northumberland 4

Norwich 1

Nottingham 3

Oakwood 4

Onley 3

Parc 1

Pentonville 2

Peterborough 1

Preston 1

Ranby 3

Risley 2

Rochester 1

Rye Hill 7

Stafford 4

Stocken 5

Stoke Heath 1

Styal 1

Swaleside 2

Swinfen Hall 7

Wandsworth 2

Wayland 1

Wealstun 2

Werrington 5

Wetherby 7

Winchester 4

Wolds 1

Woodhill 9

Wormwood Scrubs 1

Wymott 1

HMYOI Werrington – Improvements made but challenges remain say Inspectors


HMYOI Werrington was working more positively with the young people it held, but still had areas to address, said Nick Hardwick, Chief Inspector of Prisons. Today he published the report of an unannounced inspection of the young offender institution near Stoke-on-Trent.

HMYOI Werrington holds up to 160 boys under the age of 18. During the inspection about two-thirds were sentenced and one-third on remand. The significant risks and accountability of institutions holding children and young people means they are now inspected more frequently. This inspection followed an inspection in 2012 where inspectors found a reasonably caring institution, but one that had slipped back, where expectations were too low, poor behaviour not sufficiently challenged and where young people had little to do. This inspection found some improvements, but with significant shortcomings remaining.

Inspectors were pleased to find that:

  • the new purpose-built reception was impressive and young people reported very positively about their treatment on arrival;
  • behaviour management had improved;
  • use of force had fallen, was better managed and incidents were now more likely to be de-escalated by staff;
  • child protection and safeguarding arrangements were very effective and Werrington was well connected with the local authority in support of this work;
  • relationships between staff and young people were positive, but this was often not reflected in formal structures such as case notes or an effective mentoring scheme;
  • there were higher expectations of young people and outcomes for young people from minorities were reasonably good;
  • young people generally had a reasonable amount of time out of cell;
  • Werrington was developing its strategy to improve learning and skills and attendance and behaviour were better; and
  • work in support of resettlement remained good.

However, inspectors were concerned to find that:

  • although anti-bullying measures were more robust, levels of violence remained high;
  • the quality of respect was critically undermined by some very poor environmental conditions: some cells were filthy and a few were not in a fit state to house young people; and
  • some teaching required improvement and the range of vocational training was limited.

Nick Hardwick said:

“Werrington has taken steps to address some of the key issues we identified at our last visit. There is now a more positive approach to working with young people and some significant risk continues to be reasonably well managed. This will be more sustainable and useful if it is supported by effective systems and structures to embed the improvement. Improvements to the provision of purposeful activity need speeding up and the cleanliness of accommodation requires immediate attention.”

Michael Spurr, Chief Executive Officer of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), said:
“I am pleased that the Chief Inspector recognises the progress that is being made at Werrington.

“The Governor and his staff are working positively to offer good resettlement and improve the behaviour of a complex and challenging population.

“They will continue to build on these improvements as they address the recommendations set out in the report.”

A copy of the report can be found on the HM Inspectorate of Prisons website from 6 March 2014 at

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HMP Blantyre House – Good resettlement Prison But With Shortcomings


HMP Blantyre House had many strengths but needed to adjust to its changed population, said Nick Hardwick, Chief Inspector of Prisons, publishing the report of an unannounced inspection of the resettlement prison in Kent.

Blantyre House is a small, semi-open prison which holds prisoners who are coming to the end of long or indeterminate sentences and are being prepared for release. Its last inspection in 2010 found that outcomes for prisoners were good in all areas. Outcomes in this recent inspection were less good, although the prison still compared well with similar establishments. In 2010 the prison had been able to select the prisoners it held and was able to tailor its services to meet a significant but narrow range of needs. At the time of this inspection, a central unit made the allocations and Blantyre House could no longer select who it held. As a consequence the prison was holding men who presented a wider range of needs and risks than before but its work and resources had not been sufficiently adjusted to meet these new requirements.

Inspectors were concerned to find that:

  • the primary purpose of the prison was resettlement, but the prison had not assessed how the needs of its new population had changed;
  • contact between offender supervisors and prisoners was good, but not sufficiently focused on reducing reoffending;
  • public protection work was insufficiently robust;
  • there were too few places available for paid or unpaid work in the community and efforts to assist prisoners in finding something suitable were lacklustre;
  • there were insufficient training and employment opportunities inside the prison;
  • there had been two recent serious assaults, which appeared, in part, to be due to the availability of ‘Spice’ – a synthetic cannabinoid – and associated debt and bullying; and
  • there was very little self-harm but a self-inflicted death shortly before the inspection, the first at the prison, underlined that there was no room for complacency.

Despite these shortcomings, most prisoners still had a safe, respectful and productive experience at Blantyre House. Inspectors were pleased to find that:

  • staff-prisoner relationships were excellent and underpinned much of the work of the prison and made good its procedural deficiencies;
  • the environment was decent and most prisoners had very good time out of their rooms;
  • most practical resettlement arrangements were effective;
  • release on temporary licence, a critical part of the rehabilitation process, was well used for most purposes and overall the risks were properly assessed, though there was insufficient multi-agency engagement in managing the risks of those released;
  • few prisoners felt unsafe; and
  • there was very little use of force or formal disciplinary processes, but prisoners whose behaviour was concerning were quickly sent back to closed conditions.

Nick Hardwick said:

“Blantyre House still retains many of the strengths we have identified in the past. In particular, its small size means there is an opportunity for its experienced staff to get to know prisoners well and address their needs and behaviour in a personalised way that is simply not possible in larger establishments. Those strengths should be advantages in dealing with the wider and more complex range of needs among the prisoners Blantyre House now holds – but neither the prison nor the wider prison service have yet got to grips with the changes required to meet these needs or the resources necessary to make them.”

Michael Spurr, Chief Executive Officer of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), said:

“I am pleased that the Chief Inspector has highlighted Blantyre House as a good resettlement prison with safe and productive conditions – this is a credit to the hard work of the Governor and his staff.

“We recognise that the population at Blantyre House is more complex and challenging than previously and the Governor and his team will continue to have the support needed to take forward the recommendations in the report.”

A copy of the report can be found on the HM Inspectorate of Prisons at:

HMP Dovegate Therapeutic Community – Working Effectively to Reduce The Risk of Reoffending

HM Prison Dovegate - operated by Serco
HM Prison Dovegate – operated by Serco

HMP Dovegate’s Therapeutic Community was doing some good work with prisoners to reduce the risk they posed, said Nick Hardwick, Chief Inspector of Prisons, publishing the report of an unannounced inspection of the facility at the Staffordshire jail.

The Dovegate Therapeutic Community (TC) is a distinct institution holding up to 200 men, contained within the larger HMP Dovegate. The main prison, a category B training prison, is inspected separately. Dovegate TC is based on the concept that democratic therapeutic communities, run by both staff and prisoners, should be central to the way the prison operates. Prisoners are given a real say in the day-to-day running of the prison and have far more influence over their experience of prison life than at normal prisons. This happens within the context of the usual security imperatives of a category B prison holding men on indeterminate or long sentences. Men arrive at Dovegate TC needing to be more open about their offending and related institutional behaviour and to being challenged by peers and staff within therapy and community groups. Often they have a history of serious violent offending, poor institutional behaviour and prolific self-harm.

Inspectors were pleased to find that:

  • Dovegate TC remained a safe prison, with very few incidents and most day-to-day safety problems dealt with by the communities rather than by more formal processes;
  • support for the small number of men vulnerable to self-harm was good, as was support for men with substance misuse issues;
  • staff-prisoner relationships were very good, which underpinned much of the work being done;
  • time out of cells was good, but sometimes affected by problems in the main prison;
  • leadership of learning and skills was developing, but some elements of quality improvement needed to be fully embedded;
  • resettlement support was good and men were encouraged to address their risks of re-offending; and
  • some very good work was being done during therapy, but problems in delivering some key aspects of therapy risked undermining effectiveness.

However, inspectors had some concerns:

  • men spent their first few months on the assessment unit and they had little to do that was purposeful;
  • the lack of experienced TC members in the unit was affecting the transfer of some key elements of the TC’s ethos;
  • prisoners needed to feel confident enough to raise concerns in therapy about other prisoners’ behaviour, and this was not fully embedded, which needed to be addressed head on;
  • the focus of learning skills as complementing therapy needed to be better understood and supported by staff; and
  • the promise of the national integrated personality disorder pathways strategy had not yet been realised, which was a wasted opportunity to ensure men arrived at the prison at the right time, and that there was a structured plan for them to progress after completion of the programme.

Nick Hardwick said:

“Overall, Dovegate provided a safe, respectful but testing environment for the prisoners it held and the public as a whole benefited from its effective work to reduce the risk that they would reoffend after release. We identified some weaknesses, but we were reassured that management had already identified and begun to address most of them. This provided grounds for optimism that the good work of the prison would not just be continued but be enhanced.”


Michael Spurr, Chief Executive Officer of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), said:
“I am pleased that the Chief Inspector has highlighted the good work at Dovegate Therapeutic Community.

“It is a safe prison that is working well to rehabilitate a complex population and reduce their risk of reoffending.

“The director and his team will take forward the recommendations made in the report as they continue to build on their progress.”


A copy of the report can be found on the HM Inspectorate of Prisons website from 27 February 2014 at:

Alan Charlton ‘body in carpet’ conviction sent to appeal

Alan Charlton
Alan Charlton

A man convicted of murdering a Cardiff teenager whose remains were found wrapped in carpet 25 years ago has had his case sent to the Court of Appeal.

Alan Charlton is serving a life sentence for killing 15-year-old Karen Price, who disappeared from a children’s home in 1981.

He was convicted in 1991 and an appeal failed three years later.

But it has now been referred because of concerns over techniques used by South Wales Police to investigate the case.

‘Body in the carpet’

The Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) said there had been concerns about the alleged “oppressive handling” of key witnesses by officers and alleged breaches of police regulations.

It became known as the “body in the carpet” case after the teenager’s remains were discovered wrapped in carpet in a shallow grave on 7 December 1989.

A plastic bag had been placed over her head and her arms had been tied behind her back.

The body was found by workmen in the garden of a property in Fitzhamon Embankment, Cardiff, eight years after Karen had disappeared.

After failed attempts to identify her body, Richard Neave, of Manchester University, created a clay facial reconstruction of the skull.

Karen was identified following the reconstruction and DNA samples taken from her parents and the skeletal remains.

Charlton, from Bridgwater, Somerset, was living at Fitzhamon Embankment at the time the teenager went missing.

He was convicted on 26 February 1991 at Cardiff Crown Court and sentenced to life in prison with a minimum of 15 years, but he remains in jail more than 20 years later.

In 1994, Charlton’s appeal was heard alongside that of co-defendant Idris Ali, from Birchgrove in Cardiff, who was Karen’s pimp.

The court dismissed Charlton’s appeal but quashed Ali’s conviction and ordered a retrial, where he admitted manslaughter and was released from prison.

Notorious cases

But following a lengthy investigation, the CCRC has now referred Charlton’s conviction to the Court of Appeal as it considers there is “a real possibility that the court will quash the conviction”.

CCRC has said a number of officers involved in the case also investigated two notorious cases that resulted in miscarriages of justice – the murders of Lynette White and Philip Saunders.

The CCRC has also told the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) and Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary about its concerns.

IPCC commissioner Jan Williams said it raised important questions about the conduct of South Wales Police during the 1980s and 1990s.

“In the light of questions around other similar cases, this clearly raises serious issues for public confidence in the integrity of the force at that time,” she said.

“We therefore expect South Wales Police to review all the evidence from the CCRC, make a decision, and record and refer any conduct issues that may come to light and which may then require IPCC action.”

Following news of the appeal, South Wales Police Chief Constable Peter Vaughan said: “We note that the Criminal Cases Review Commission has referred the conviction of Alan Charlton for the murder of Karen Price to the Court of Appeal.

“In light of this referral we must now allow the judicial process to take its course and therefore cannot comment further at this stage.”


Rigby Killers: How They Were Drawn To Extremism

Here are profiles of Lee Rigby’s killers, Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale.

Suspect Michael Adebolajo Michael Adebolajo

Michael Adebolajo horrified millions of people by appearing on camera with bloodied hands clutching a knife and a meat cleaver moments after killing Lee Rigby.

The 29-year-old, who was raised as a Christian, became a committed Islamic extremist who tried to join jihadis in east Africa, and then brought terror to the streets of the UK.

In the shocking footage, he was seen ranting about how Muslims in other countries had to witness similar horrors to that which he and Michael Adebowale had wreaked in south-east London.

Another film clip captured him charging towards police clutching a knife and a meat cleaver, and flying through the air after he was shot by the embattled marksmen.

Giving evidence in court, he only showed emotion when talking about his religious beliefs, but remained calm when describing his chilling attempts to decapitate Fusilier Rigby.

He told jurors that he had converted to Islam in 2002 or 2003, when he was a student at the University of Greenwich, and chose to take the name Mujahid Abu Hamza.

Adebolajo said he wanted to be called Mujahid, meaning fighter, after he learned “how much Allah loves the mujahideen”.

He was born to Nigerian parents at King’s College Hospital in south-east London on December 10 1984, and later went to Marshalls Park School in Romford, east London, where he made friends with Kirk Redpath, who went on to become a Lance Corporal in the British Army and was killed in an explosion in Iraq.

Adebolajo told jurors that most of his friends growing up were white British, and that he blamed Tony Blair for Mr Redpath’s death.

His nurse father Anthony and social worker mother Tina had tried to dissuade him away from the clutches of Islamic extremism, but in 2010 he was arrested in Kenya, apparently trying to get to Somalia to join the terrorist group al-Shabaab.

Adebolajo said he wanted to get to the African country so that he could live under Sharia law.

His friend Abu Nusaybah claimed that Adebolajo was asked to work for the British security services after he was caught, and Adebolajo told police that MI5 had visited his home.

The Commons Intelligence and Security Committee is looking at what security services knew about the suspects before the murder, and is expected to make at least some parts of its findings public.

In police interview and throughout his court appearances he rambled on about his political and religious motivations.

Before his defence case began, a hearing took place to establish ground rules for what would happen in court, to try to stop him using the Old Bailey as his soap box.

Mr Justice Sweeney told his barrister David Gottlieb: “In the light of what we all saw in the (police) interviews what needs to be clearly understood is that in the court arena at least a question is not a cue for a speech, it’s a cue for an answer.”

Adebolajo was held at high security Belmarsh prison after he was charged with the murder of Fusilier Rigby, and there he claimed that he was attacked by a group of prison officers, and lost his front teeth when they put him under restraint.

Five members of prison staff were suspended after the incident, but the Prison Officers’ Association insisted that only approved restraint techniques had been used.


Michael-Adebowale Michael Adebowale

Michael Adebowale attacked three police officers in his first 24 hours in custody, it can now be reported.

The 22-year-old, who was confronted by courageous “Woolwich Angel” Ingrid Loyau-Kennett in the aftermath of Fusilier Rigby’s murder, was said to be “very unpredictable” when held by police.

As a teenager, he was victim of a knife attack in which his best friend was killed, and he told psychiatrists that he was haunted by the voices of his would-be killers.

He was discharged from hospital six days after Fusilier Rigby’s murder, and was formally charged on May 29, appearing in court for the first time the next day.

There the rare step was taken of allowing him to be handcuffed while in the dock because of the risk to police, prison and security officers.

It emerged that he had attacked three police officers in 24 hours. The first incident was when he was in his cell picking out his stitches, and when a police officer came in to stop him, he punched him in the face with his right hand.

Then when he was interviewed for the first time, he spat in an officer’s face; and in a third incident he spat in a glass of water and threw it in a police officer’s face.

While in prison he told psychiatrist Dr Neil Boast that he would hear voices in the morning for about 10 minutes.

The medic described: “People he doesn’t know and people who took part in an assault on him when he was injured and a friend was killed. He hears people he doesn’t know speaking in a Nigerian accent about him.”

Experts said he had suffered post-traumatic stress disorder after being a victim of the knife attack at the age of 16. Police said he was “quite a troubled young man” who had gone missing from home more than once.

Former bare-knuckle fighter Lee James was found guilty of murdering 18-year-old Faridon Alizada in 2008 at a flat in Erith, south east London, and wounding Adebowale and another 16-year-old friend.

Adebowale, who was known as Tobi, was the son of Juliet Obasuyi, reportedly a probation officer, and his father Adeniyi, who works for the Nigerian High Commission.

He was raised as a Christian in south east London, and went to school in Kidbrooke. As he moved into his teens, he became involved in drugs and was linked to the Woolwich Boys gang – as was Adebolajo.

His concerned mother appealed for her friend Richard Taylor, the father of tragic Damilola who was killed at the age of 10 in a knife attack, to mentor her son, but he later fell into extremism.

Mr Taylor said that he was “terribly shocked” to see him involved in the brutality, having spoken to him only two months before the murder, but that he felt there was nothing that could have changed the 22-year-old.

In an interview with ITV News, he said: “Having seen how my own son was stabbed to death, it made me feel that…at the end of whatever happens, they will still be alive, they will still be on the street or maybe they will take them away from the public and go and change their faces. They don’t deserve to live.”

Adebowale, who asked to be called Ismail Ibn Abdullah in court, ultimately chose not to give evidence and refused to explain his horrific actions to the jury or Fusilier Rigby’s family.

BBC Panorama has obtained footage of Adebowale speaking at a demonstration associated with radical preacher Anjem Choudary.

The event took place outside St Paul’s Cathedral in central London and both Choudary and Adebowale were in attendance.

The never-before-seen footage shows Adebowale publicly embracing extreme Islamist views.

He is heard saying: “You talk about Britain, talk about there being a problem in Britain. Islam is going to take over the whole world, you can see it. It’s coming, inevitably, even if you hate it.

“In Somalia we see that there was a few people who rose up to establish Islamic law, and what happened?

“America came and dropped bombs on their heads and then after they dropped bombs on their children’s heads, on their mothers’ heads, on their wives’ heads and innocent people.

“The prophet said if you see an evil, like, change it with your hand if you can do so; if you cannot do so then speak out against it, and if you cannot do that then hate in your heart.”

Choudary denies meeting Adebowale there or organising the event – although his mobile number is on the web poster.

He told Panorama he was unaware that Adebolawe had been at the protest which he attended.